Skip to content


(Working Document 2/20/2020)

  1. AAP National Committee on Pediatric Workforce: Tools and Resources for Advocacy in Pediatrics, 2013
  2. AAP Research – Updated pediatrician and child trends Feb 2020 for AMSPDC
  3. Akl EA, Mustafa R, Bdair F, Schünemann HJ. The United States Physician Workforce and International Medical Graduates: Trends and Characteristics. Journal of General Internal Medicine 2007;22:264–268.
  4. Babcock et al. Maintaining a Sufficient and Quality Physician Workforce: The Role of For-profit Medical Schools. Health Services Insights 2013:6 87–98 doi:10.4137/HSI.S10462.
  5. Basco W & Rimsza M. (2013). Pediatrician workforce policy statement. Pediatrics. 132. 390-7. 10.1542/peds.2013-1517.
  6. Berns JS, Ghosn M, & Altamirano RR. (2017). International Medical Graduates in Nephrology: Roles, Rules, and Future Risks. American journal of kidney diseases: the official journal of the National Kidney Foundation, 72 1, 113-117.
  7. Block RW, Dreyer BP, Cohen AR, Stapleton FB, Furth SL, Bucciarelli RL. An agenda for children for the 113th Congress: recommendations from the pediatric academic societies. Pediatrics. 2013;131(1):109–119. doi:10.1542/peds.2012-2661.
  8. Bridgemohan C, Bauer NS, Nielsen BA, et al. A Workforce Survey on Developmental-Behavioral Pediatrics. Pediatrics. 2018;141(3):e20172164.
  9. Burns, et al White Paper & Table (2019) Fixing The Leaky Pipeline: Identifying Solutions For Improving Pediatrician-Scientist Training During Pediatric Residency 9-Burns et al_ White Paper    9a-Burns et al. Table.  
  10. Council of Pediatric Subspecialties Workforce Activities for AMSPDC, 2020
  11. Ferris M, Iglesia E, Ko Z, Amamoo A, Mahan J, Desai T, Gibson K, Jhaveri K & Primack W (2014) Wanted: pediatric nephrologists! — why trainees are not choosing pediatric nephrology, Renal Failure, 36:8, 1340-1344, DOI:10.3109/0886022X.2014.937671.
  12. Filler et al. Does specialist physician supply affect pediatric asthma health outcomes? BMC Health Services Research (2018) 18:247.
  13. Fraher EP, Knapton A, Holmes GM. A Methodology for Using Workforce Data to Decide Which Specialties and States to Target for Graduate Medical Education Expansion. Health Serv Res. 2017;52 Suppl 1(Suppl 1):508–528. doi:10.1111/1475-6773.12649.
  14. Freed GL, Bias in Physician Workforce Research. Pediatrics. 2019;144(3):e20190469
  15. Freed GL, Moran LM, Dunham KM, Hawkins-Walsh E and Martyn KK. Capacity of, And Demand For, Pediatric Nurse Practitioner Educational Programs: A Missing Piece of the Workforce Puzzle. Journal of Professional Nursing, Vol 0, No. 0 (February), 2015: pp 1–7
  16. Freed GL, Moran LM, Van KD, et al. Current Workforce of General Pediatricians in the United States. Pediatrics. 2016;137(4):e20154242.
  17. Freed GL, Moran LM, Van KD, et al. Current Workforce of Pediatric Subspecialists in the United States. Pediatrics. 2017;139(5):e20163604.
  18. Freed, GL, Dunham KM, Moran LM, Spera L, McGuinness GA, Stevenson DK. Fellowship Program Directors Perspectives on Fellowship Training Pediatrics 2014;133;S64. DOI: 10.1542/peds.2013-3861D
  19. Freed G, Du K, Jones M, McGuinness G, Althouse L. (2009). General Pediatrics Resident Perspectives on Training Decisions and Career Choice. Pediatrics. 123 Suppl 1. S26-30. 10.1542/peds.2008-1578H.
  20. Freed GL, Moran LM, Althouse LA, et al. Jobs and Career Plans of New Pediatric Subspecialists. Pediatrics. 2016;137(3):e20153298
  21. Freed GL, Dunham KM, Loveland-Cherry C, et al. Nurse Practitioners and Physician Assistants Employed by General and Subspecialty Pediatricians. Pediatrics 2011;128:000
  22. Freed GL, Dunham KM, Moran LM, Spera L, McGhinness GA and Stevenson DK. Pediatric Subspecialty Fellowship Clinical Training Project: Current Fellows. Pediatrics 2014;133;S58. DOI: 10.1542/peds.2013-3861G
  23. Freed GL, Dunham KM, Moran LM, Spera L, McGuiness GA, Stevenson DK. Kelly M. Dunham, Lauren M. Moran, Laura Spera, Gail A. McGuinness and David K. Stevenson. Pediatric Subspecialty Fellowship Clinical Training Project: Recent Graduates and Midcareer Survey Comparison. Pediatrics 2014;133;S70. DOI: 10.1542/peds.2013-3861E
  24. Freed GL, Dunham KM, Moran LM, McGuinness GA, Stevenson DK. Specialty Specific Comparisons Regarding Perspectives on Fellowship Training. Pediatrics 2014;133;S76. DOI: 10.1542/peds.2013-3861F
  25. Freed GL, Boyer DM, Van KD, Macy ML, McCormick J, Leslie LK. Variation in Part-Time Work among Pediatric Subspecialties The Journal of Pediatrics 2017
  26. Glenn, D.A., Ocegueda, S., Nazareth, M., Zhong, Y., Weinstein, A.R., Primack, W.A., Cochat, P., & Ferris, M.E. (2016). The global pediatric nephrology workforce: a survey of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association. BMC Nephrology.
  27. Henrickson M. Policy challenges for the pediatric rheumatology workforce: Part II. Health care system delivery and workforce supply. Pediatric Rheumatology 2011 9:24.
  28. Henrickson M. Policy challenges for the pediatric rheumatology workforce: Part I. Education and economics. Pediatric Rheumatology 2011 9:23.
  29. Heyman, MB, Weiss P, Boyer D, Fussell J, Immundo L, Aye T, Jarjour IT, Spicer R, Bale J. Challenges of Funding Pediatric Fellowship Programs—Invited Commentary from the Council of Pediatric Subspecialties.The Journal of  Pediatrics 2019
  30. Hsu C, Parker MG, Ross MJ, Schmidt RJ, Harris RC on behalf of the ASN Nephrology Match Task Force. Improving the Nephrology Match: the Path Forward. J Am Soc Nephrol 26: 2634–2639, 2015. doi: 10.1681/ASN.2015040420.
  31. Keels EL, Goldsmith JP, AAP COMMITTEE ON FETUS AND NEWBORN. Neonatal Provider Workforce. Pediatrics. 2019;144(6):e20193147.
  32. Lane, C.A., Healy, C., Ho, M., Pearson, S., & Brown, M.A. (2008). How to attract a nephrology trainee: quantitative questionnaire results. Nephrology, 13 2, 116-23.
  33. Lee L, Upadhya KK, Matson PA, Adger H, Trent ME. The status of adolescent medicine: building a global adolescent workforce. Int J Adolesc Med Health. 2016;28(3):233–243. doi:10.1515/ijamh-2016-5003.
  34. Leyenaar, J.K., & Frintner, M.P. (2017). Graduating Pediatric Residents Entering the Hospital Medicine Workforce, 2006-2015. Academic pediatrics, 18 2, 200-207.
  35. Macy ML, Van KD, Leslie LL, Freed GL. Engagement in research among pediatric subspecialists at the time of enrollment in maintenance of certification, 2009−2016 Pediatric Research. 2019
  36. Macy ML, Leslie LK, Boyer D, Van KD, Freed GL. Timing and Stability of Fellowship Choices during Pediatric Residency: A Longitudinal Survey. Journal of Pediatrics. 2018;198:294-300.
  37. Marshall GD. The status of US allergy/immunology physicians in the 21st century: A report from the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Workforce Committee. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Volume 119, Issue 4, 802 – 807.
  38. Minaie, Arya & Shlykov, Maksim & Hosseinzadeh, Pooya. (2019). Pediatric Orthopedic Workforce. Orthopedic Clinics of North America. 10.1016/j.ocl.2019.03.006.
  39. Kang PB, Bale JF, Mintz M, et al. Neurology Sep 2016, 87 (13) 1384-1392; DOI:1212/WNL.0000000000003147.
  40. Petterson SM, Liaw WR, Tran C, Bazemore AW. Estimating the Residency Expansion Required to Avoid Projected Primary Care Physician Shortages by 2035. Ann Fam Med 2015;13:107-114. doi: 10.1370/afm.1760.
  41. Primack WA, Meyers KE, Kirkwood S, Ruch-Ross HS, Radabaugh CL, Greenbaum LA. (2015). The US pediatric nephrology workforce: a report commissioned by the American Academy of Pediatrics. American journal of kidney diseases: the official journal of the National Kidney Foundation, 66 1, 33-9.
  42. Riebschleger, Meredith & McGuinness, Gail & Currin, Lee & Althouse, Linda & Freed, Gary. (2014). Noncompletion in Pediatric Rheumatology Fellowships. Journal of graduate medical education. 6. 158-61. 10.4300/JGME-D-13-00114.1.
  43. Rimsza ME, Ruch-Ross HS, Clemens CJ, Moskowitz WB, Mulvey HJ. Workforce Trends and Analysis of Selected Pediatric Subspecialties in the United States. 2018, Academic Pediatrics
  44. Rockey PH, Rieselbach RE, Neuhausen K, Nasca TJ, Phillips RL, Sundwall DN, Philibert I, Yaghmour NA (2014) States Can Transform Their Health Care Workforce. Journal of Graduate Medical Education: December 2014, Vol. 6, No. 4, pp. 805-808.
  45. Salata RA, Geraci MW, Rockey DC, Blanchard M, Brown NJ, Cardinal LJ, Garcia M, Madaio MP, Marsh JD, Todd RF. U.S. Physician–Scientist Workforce in the 21st Century: Recommendations to Attract and Sustain the Pipeline. Acad Med. 2018;93:565–573.
  46. Sectish T, Hay W, Mahan J, et al. Blueprint for Action: Visioning Summit on the Future of the Workforce in Pediatrics. Pediatrics. 136. 10.1542/peds.2014-3493.t for Action Visioning Summit on the Future of the Workforce in Pediatrics
  47. Silver JK, Bean AC, Slocum C, et al. Physician workforce disparities and patient care: a narrative review, Health Equity 3:1, 360–377, DOI: 10.1089/heq.2019.0040.
  48. Streeter RA, Zangaro GA, Chattopadhyay A. Perspectives: Using Results from HRSA’s Health Workforce Simulation Model to Examine the Geography of Primary Care. Health Serv Res. 2017;52 Suppl 1(Suppl 1):4
  49. Weiss P, Mauer E, Gerber LM, Boyer D, Abramson EL. Funding sources and effects of limited funding in pediatric pulmonology fellowship programs. Pediatric Pulmonology. 2020;55:221–225.
  50. Weiss P, Myers AL, McGann KA, Mason KE, Kesselheim JC, Fleming G, Barron C, Klasner A, Heyman MB, Weiss DL, Mauer E, Gerber LM, Abramson EL. Funding Sources and Perceived Financial Insecurity in Pediatric Subspecialty Fellowship Programs. Academic Pediatrics 2019;19:815−821
  51. Weyland AC and Freed GL, Pediatric subspecialty workforce: Undersupply or Over-demand?, Pediatric Research doi:10.1038/s41390-020-0766-0
Back To Top