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Original AMSPDC Workforce Initiative

    1. Vinci RJ. The Pediatric Workforce: Recent Data Trends, Questions and Challenges for the Future. Pediatrics. DOI: 10.1542/peds.2020-013292
    2. Vinci RJ, Degnon L, Devaskar, SU. Pediatrics 2025: The AMSPDC Workforce Initiative. The Journal of Pediatrics. Published online: February 6, 2021.  DOI:

Workforce Policy 

    1. AAP National Committee on Pediatric Workforce: Tools and Resources for Advocacy in Pediatrics, 2013
    2. Babcock et al. Maintaining a Sufficient and Quality Physician Workforce: The Role of For-profit Medical Schools. Health Services Insights. 2013;6 87–98 doi:10.4137/HSI.S10462.
    3. Basco W and Rimsza M. Pediatrician workforce policy statement. Pediatrics. 2013;132. 390-7. 10.1542/peds.2013-1517.
    4. Block RW, Dreyer BP, Cohen AR, Stapleton FB, Furth SL, Bucciarelli RL. An agenda for children for the 113th Congress: recommendations from the pediatric academic societiesPediatrics. 2013;131(1):109–119. doi:10.1542/peds.2012-2661.
    5. Filler et al. Does specialist physician supply affect pediatric asthma health outcomes? BMC Health Services Research. 2018;18:247.
    6. Freed GL, Bias in Physician Workforce Research. Pediatrics. 2019;144(3):e20190469.
    7. Freed, GL, Dunham KM, Moran LM, Spera L, McGuinness GA, Stevenson DK. Fellowship Program Directors Perspectives on Fellowship Training  Pediatrics. 2014;133;S64. DOI: 10.1542/peds.2013-3861D.
    8. Freed GL, et al. The Pediatric Subspecialty Workforce Is More Complex Than Meets the Eye. JAMA Pediatrics. 2021;175(10):1006-1008.
    9. Goodman DC. The Pediatric Subspecialty Workforce: Time to Test Our Assumptions. Pediatrics. 2006;118;2545.
    10. Henrickson M. Policy challenges for the pediatric rheumatology workforce: Part II. Health care system delivery and workforce supply. Pediatric Rheumatology. 2011;9:24.
    11. Henrickson M. Policy challenges for the pediatric rheumatology workforce: Part I. Education and economics. Pediatric Rheumatology. 2011;9:23.
    12. Heyman MB, Weiss P, Boyer D, Fussell J, Immundo L, Aye T, Jarjour IT, Spicer R, Bale J. Challenges of Funding Pediatric Fellowship Programs—Invited Commentary from the Council of Pediatric Subspecialties. The Journal of  Pediatrics. 2019.
    13. Hsu C, Parker MG, Ross MJ, Schmidt RJ, Harris RC on behalf of the ASN Nephrology Match Task Force. Improving the Nephrology Match: the Path Forward. J Am Soc Nephrol. 26: 2634–2639, 2015. doi: 10.1681/ASN.2015040420.
    14. Perrin, JM et al. Medicaid and Child Health Equity. The New England Journal of Medicine. 2020; 383:2595-2598 DOI: 10.1056/NEJMp2030646.
    15. Rockey PH, Rieselbach RE, Neuhausen K, Nasca TJ, Phillips RL, Sundwall DN, Philibert I, Yaghmour NA. States Can Transform Their Health Care Workforce. Journal of Graduate Medical Education. December 2014;Vol. 6, No. 4, pp. 805-808.
    16. Sectish T, Hay W, Mahan J, et al. Blueprint for Action: Visioning Summit on the Future of the Workforce in Pediatrics. Pediatrics. 136. 10.1542/peds.2014-3493.
    17. Silver JK, Bean AC, Slocum C, et al. Physician workforce disparities and patient care: a narrative review. Health Equity. 3:1, 360–377, DOI: 10.1089/heq.2019.0040.
    18. Streeter RA, Zangaro GA, Chattopadhyay A. Perspectives: Using Results from HRSA’s Health Workforce Simulation Model to Examine the Geography of Primary CareHealth Services Research. 2017;52 Suppl 1(Suppl 1):4.

Domain 1: Changing the Educational Paradigm

    1. Brotherton SE and Etzel SI. Graduate Medical Education, 2019-2020. JAMA vol. 324,12 (September 22/29, 2020).
    2. Freed GL, Dunham KM, Moran LM, Spera L, McGhinness GA and Stevenson DK. Pediatric Subspecialty Fellowship Clinical Training Project: Current Fellows. Pediatrics. 2014;133;S58. DOI: 10.1542/peds.2013-3861G.
    3. Freed GL, Dunham KM, Moran LM, Spera L, McGuiness GA, Stevenson DK. Kelly M. Dunham, Lauren M. Moran, Laura Spera, Gail A. McGuinness and David K. Stevenson. Pediatric Subspecialty Fellowship Clinical Training Project: Recent Graduates and Midcareer Survey Comparison. Pediatrics. 2014;133;S70. DOI: 10.1542/peds.2013-3861E.
    4. Freed GL, Dunham KM, Moran LM, McGuinness GA, Stevenson DK. Specialty Specific Comparisons Regarding Perspectives on Fellowship Training. Pediatrics. 2014;133;S76. DOI: 10.1542/peds.2013-3861F.
    5. Iyer, MS et al. What Procedures Are Important to General Pediatricians and Why? Academic Pediatrics. 2021 May 1;S1876-2859(21)00151-0. doi: 10.1016/j.acap.2021.03.012.
    6. Lane, CA, Healy C, Ho M, Pearson S, & Brown MA. How to attract a nephrology trainee: quantitative questionnaire results. Nephrology. 2008;13 2, 116-23.
    7. Macy ML, Leslie LK, Boyer D, Van KD, Freed GL. Timing and Stability of Fellowship Choices during Pediatric Residency: A Longitudinal Survey. The Journal of Pediatrics. 2018 Jul;198:294-300.e1. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2018.03.034. Epub 2018 May 7. PMID: 29747937.
    8. Petterson SM, Liaw WR, Tran C, Bazemore AW. Estimating the Residency Expansion Required to Avoid Projected Primary Care Physician Shortages by 2035Annals of Family Medicine. 2015;13:107-114. doi: 10.1370/afm.1760
    9.  Stevenson DK, McGuinness GA, John D. Bancroft, MD; Debra M. Boyer, MD; Alan R. Cohen, MD; Joseph T. Gilhooly, MD; Mary Fran Hazinski, MSN; Eric S. Holmboe, MD; M. Douglas Jones, Jr, MD; Marshall L. Land, Jr, MD; Sarah S. Long, MD; Victoria F. Norwood, MD; Daniel J. Schumacher, MD; Theodore C. Sectish, MD; Joseph W. St Geme, III, MD; Daniel C. West, MD The Initiative on Subspecialty Clinical Training and Certification (SCTC): Background and Recommendations | Pediatrics | American Academy of Pediatrics (

Domain 2: Workforce Data/Needs and Access

    1. AAP Pediatric Subspecialty Shortages Fact Sheets
    2. AAP Research – Updated pediatrician and child trends Feb 2020 for AMSPDC
    3. Ackerman, Kate, et al National Pediatrician-Scientist Collaborative Workgroup, NPSCW PAS LAB Program Booklet, Published April 2022
    4. Akl EA, Mustafa R, Bdair F, Schünemann HJ. The United States Physician Workforce and International Medical Graduates: Trends and Characteristics. Journal of General Internal Medicine. 2007;22:264–268.
    5. Allen DB, et al. Sustaining the Pediatric Endocrinology Workforce: Recommendations from the Pediatric Endocrine Society Workforce Task Force. The Journal of Pediatrics. 2020;doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2020.10.063.
    6. Berns JS, Ghosn M, and Altamirano RR. International Medical Graduates in Nephrology: Roles, Rules, and Future Risks. American Journal of Kidney Diseases. 2017;72 1, 113-117.
    7. Berns JS, Ghosn M, and Altamirano RR. International Medical Graduates in Nephrology: Roles, Rules, and Future Risks. American Journal of Kidney Diseases. 2017;72 1, 113-117.
    8. Bridgemohan C, Bauer NS, Nielsen BA, et al. A Workforce Survey on Developmental-Behavioral Pediatrics. Pediatrics. 2018;141(3):e20172164.
    9. Burns, et al. White Paper & Table (2019) Fixing The Leaky Pipeline: Identifying Solutions For Improving Pediatrician-Scientist Training During Pediatric Residency 9-Burns et al_ White Paper    9a-Burns et al. Table.  
    10. Correll CK et al. 2015 American College of Rheumatology Workforce Study and Demand Projections of Pediatric Rheumatology Workforce, 2015‐2030. Arthritis Care & Research. 27 October 2020
    11. Council of Pediatric Subspecialties Workforce Activities for AMSPDC, 2020
    12. Duvivier RJ, Gusic ME, Boulet JR. International Medical Graduates in the Pediatric Workforce in the United States. Pediatrics. March 2020; 146 (6) e2020003301; DOI: 10.1542/peds.2020-003301.
    13. Ferris M, Iglesia E, Ko Z, Amamoo A, Mahan J, Desai T, Gibson K, Jhaveri K & Primack W. Wanted: pediatric nephrologists! — why trainees are not choosing pediatric nephrology. Renal Failure. 2014;36:8, 1340-1344, DOI:10.3109/0886022X.2014.937671.
    14. Fraher EP, Knapton A, Holmes GM. A Methodology for Using Workforce Data to Decide Which Specialties and States to Target for Graduate Medical Education ExpansionHealth Services Research. 2017;52 Suppl 1(Suppl 1):508–528. doi:10.1111/1475-6773.12649.
    15. Freed GL, Wickham KK. Assessing the pediatric subspecialty pipeline: it is all about the data source. National Library of Medicine, 2023 Jun;93(7):1907-1912. doi: 10.1038/s41390-022-02438-5. Epub 2022 Dec 23.
    16. Freed GL, Moran LM, Dunham KM, Hawkins-Walsh E and Martyn KK. Capacity of, And Demand For, Pediatric Nurse Practitioner Educational Programs: A Missing Piece of the Workforce Puzzle. Journal of Professional Nursing. Vol 0, No. 0 (February), 2015;pp 1–7.
    17. Freed GL, Moran LM, Van KD, et al. Current Workforce of General Pediatricians in the United States. Pediatrics. 2016;137(4):e20154242.
    18. Freed GL, Moran LM, Van KD, et al. Current Workforce of Pediatric Subspecialists in the United States. Pediatrics. 2017;139(5):e20163604.
    19. Freed GL, Dunham KM, Loveland-Cherry C, et al. Nurse Practitioners and Physician Assistants Employed by General and Subspecialty Pediatricians. Pediatrics. 2011;128:000.
    20. Freed GL, Boyer DM, Van KD, Macy ML, McCormick J, Leslie LK. Variation in Part-Time Work among Pediatric Subspecialties. The Journal of Pediatrics. 2017.
    21. Gigli KH et al. Availability of Acute Care Pediatric Nurse Practitioner Education in the United States: A Challenge to Growing the Workforce. Journal of Pediatric Health Care. 2020;34:5.
    22. Gigli KH et al. PICU Provider Supply and Demand: A National Survey. Pediatric Critical Care Medicine. 2018; 19:18.
    23. Gigli KH et al. White Paper: Critical Shortage of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners PredictedJournal of Pediatric Health Care. 2019;33:3.
    24. Glenn DA, Ocegueda S, Nazareth M, Zhong Y, Weinstein AR, Primack WA, Cochat P, & Ferris ME The global pediatric nephrology workforce: a survey of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association. BMC Nephrology. 2016.
    25. Keels EL, Goldsmith JP, AAP Committee on Fetus and Newborn. Neonatal Provider Workforce. Pediatrics. 2019;144(6):e20193147.
    26. 1. Lee L, Upadhya KK, Matson PA, Adger H, Trent ME. The status of adolescent medicine: building a global adolescent workforce. Int J Adolesc Med Health. 2016;28(3):233–243. doi:10.1515/ijamh-2016-5003.
    27. Leonard MB, & Grimm PC. Improving Quality of Care and Outcomes for Pediatric Patients with End-stage Kidney Disease. Jama 2022;328(5):427-429. doi:10.1001/jama.2022.11603
    28. Leyenaar, JK, & Frintner MP. Graduating Pediatric Residents Entering the Hospital Medicine Workforce, 2006-2015. Academic pediatrics. 2017;18 2, 200-207.
    29. Macy ML, Leslie LK, Turner A, and Freed GL. Growth and changes in the pediatric medical subspecialty workforce pipeline. Pediatric Research. 2020;
    30. Macy ML, Van KD, Leslie LL, Freed GL. Engagement in research among pediatric subspecialists at the time of enrollment in maintenance of certification, 2009−2016. Pediatric Research. 2019.
    31. Marshall GD. The status of US allergy/immunology physicians in the 21st century: A report from the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Workforce Committee. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. Volume 119, Issue 4, 802 – 807.
    32. Minaie, Arya & Shlykov, Maksim & Hosseinzadeh, Pooya. Pediatric Orthopedic Workforce. Orthopedic Clinics of North America. 2019;10.1016/j.ocl.2019.03.006.
    33. Pediatric Subspecialty Supply Model Information Sheet, 2020
    34. Primack WA, Meyers KE, Kirkwood S, Ruch-Ross HS, Radabaugh CL, Greenbaum LA.  The US pediatric nephrology workforce: a report commissioned by the American Academy of Pediatrics. American Journal of Kidney Diseases. 2015;66 1, 33-9.
    35. Ray KN, et al. Supply and Utilization of Pediatric Subspecialists in the United States. Pediatrics. 2014;133;1061.
    36. Riebschleger, Meredith & McGuinness, Gail & Currin, Lee & Althouse, Linda & Freed, Gary. Noncompletion in Pediatric Rheumatology Fellowships. Journal of Graduate Medical Education. 2014;6. 158-61. 10.4300/JGME-D-13-00114.1.
    37. Rimsza ME, Ruch-Ross HS, Clemens CJ, Moskowitz WB, Mulvey HJ. Workforce Trends and Analysis of Selected Pediatric Subspecialties in the United States. Academic Pediatrics. 2018.
    38. Roizen, NJ et al. Developmental-Behavioral Pediatrics 13 Years After the First Board Certification: Evolving Subspecialty. Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics. 2021 Feb-Mar 01;42(2):83-90. doi: 10.1097/DBP.0000000000000876.
    39. Ross RD. Progress in Pediatric Cardiology. Pediatric Cardiology. 2017; 44: 67-71
    40. Salata RA, Geraci MW, Rockey DC, Blanchard M, Brown NJ, Cardinal LJ, Garcia M, Madaio MP, Marsh JD, Todd RF. U.S. Physician–Scientist Workforce in the 21st Century: Recommendations to Attract and Sustain the Pipeline. Acad Med. 2018;93:565–573.
    41. Turner A, Ricketts T, Leslie LK. Comparison of Number and Geographic Distribution of Pediatric Subspecialists and Patient Proximity to Specialized Care in the US Between 2003 and 2019. JAMA Pediatrics. 2020 May 18;174(9):805. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2020.1124. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 32421165; PMCID: PMC7235911.

Domain 3: Economic Strategy

    1. Bravender T, et al. Association of Salary Differences Between Medical Specialties With Sex Distribution. JAMA. Published online February 8, 2021. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2020.5683.
    2. Catenaccio, E et al. Differences in Lifetime Earning Potential Between Pediatric and Adult Physicians. Pediatrics. August 2021, 148 (2) e2021051194; DOI:
    3. Catenaccio, E et al. Differences in Lifetime Earning Potential for Pediatric Subspecialists. Pediatrics. 2021; DOI:
    4. Catenaccio E, Rochlin JM., Simon HK. Association Between Gender Distribution and Lifetime Earning Potential in the Pediatric Subspecialties – Academic Pediatrics (, Published February 24, 2022. DOI:
    5. Catenaccio E, Rochlin JM., Simon HK. Association of Lifetime Earning Potential and Workforce Distribution Among Pediatric Subspecialists DOI: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2021.1912
    6. Catenaccio E, Rochlin JM., Weitzman C, Augustyn M, Simon H,. Lifetime Earning Potential and Workforce Distribution in Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics DOI: 10.1016/j.acap.2022.09.017
    7. Congressional Budget Office. Exploring the Effects of Medicaid During Childhood on the Economy and the Budget: Working Paper 2023-07. Published online November 1, 2023.
    8. Conick H. The five lowest-earning medical specialties Published May 15, 2023
    9. Counts NZ et al. Proposing the Ideal Alternative Payment Model for Children. JAMA Pediatrics. Published online April 5, 2021. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2021.0247
    10. Freed G, Wickham K, Comparison of Calculations of the Financial Impact of Fellowship Training by Data Source JAMA Netw Open. 2023;6(7):e2326639. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2023.26639
    11. Iroku-Malize T., Chung s., Hicks V., Atiq O., Monka I., and Levounis P. Policymakers must take action on the physician shortage
    12. Lakshminrusimha S, Murin S, Lubarsky D, Low Compensation for Academic Pediatric Medical Specialists: Role of Medicaid, Productivity, Work Hours, and Sex
    13. Leslie LK, Gregg C, Turner A, Schaechter J, Barnard J., Perceived Job Availability of Graduating Pediatric Subspecialty Fellows in 2019 and 2021 DOI: 10.1542/peds.2022-057830
    14. The Economist. Why doctors in America earn so much. Published online October 31, 2023.
    15. Weiss P, Mauer E, Gerber LM, Boyer D, Abramson EL. Funding sources and effects of limited funding in pediatric pulmonology fellowship programs. Pediatric Pulmonology. 2020;55:221–225.
    16. Weiss P, Myers AL, McGann KA, Mason KE, Kesselheim JC, Fleming G, Barron C, Klasner A, Heyman MB, Weiss DL, Mauer E, Gerber LM, Abramson EL. Funding Sources and Perceived Financial Insecurity in Pediatric Subspecialty Fellowship Programs. Academic Pediatrics. 2019;19:815−821.

Domain 4: Recruitment/Outreach & Early Integration

    1. Association of American Medical Colleges. The complexities of physician supply and demand: projections from 2017 to 2032. 2019. Available at: https:// Accessed July 22, 2022
    2. Balmer DF, Gottlieb-Smith RJ, Hobday PM, Long M, Carraccio C, Bale JF, Lane JL; EPAC Study Group. Pediatric Career Choice: Insights from a Novel, Medical School Pathways Program. Acad Pediatr. 2020 Jan-Feb;20(1):97-103. doi: 10.1016/j.acap.2019.07.013. Epub 2019
    3. Catenaccio E, Rochlin JM, Simon HK. Association of Lifetime Earning Potential and Workforce Distribution Among Pediatric Subspecialists. JAMA Pediatr. 2021;175(10):1053-1059. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2021.1912
    4. Children’s Hospital Association. Fact sheet. Pediatric workforce shortages persist. Accessed July 25, 2002.
    5. COMMITTEE ON PEDIATRIC WORKFORCE, Basco, W. T., Rimsza, M. E., Rimsza, M. E., Hotaling, A. J., Sigrest, T. D., & Simon, F. A. (2013). Pediatrician workforce policy statement. Pediatrics, 132(2), 390-397.
    6. Frank E, Feinglass S. Student loan debt does not predict female physicians’ choice of primary care specialty. J Gen Intern Med. 1999 Jun;14(6):347-50. doi: 10.1046/j.1525-1497.1999.00339.x. PMID: 10354254; PMCID: PMC1496591.
    7. Freed G, Du K, Jones M, McGuinness G, Althouse L. General Pediatrics Resident Perspectives on Training Decisions and Career Choice. Pediatrics. 2009;123 Suppl 1. S26-30. 10.1542/peds.2008-1578H.
    8. Freed GL, Moran LM, Althouse LA, et al. Jobs and Career Plans of New Pediatric Subspecialists. Pediatrics. 2016;137(3):e20153298.
    9. Frintner MP, Mulvey HJ, Pletcher BA, Olson LM. Pediatric resident debt and career intentions. Pediatrics. 2013;131(2):312-318. doi:10.1542/peds.2012-0411
    10. Guiot A, Baker R, Dewitt T. When and How Pediatric History and Physical Diagnosis Are Taught in Medical School: A Survey of Pediatric Clerkship Directors. Hosp Pediatr. 2013; 3(2): 139-143.
    11. Hauer KE, Durning SJ, Kernan WN, Fagan MJ, Mintz M, O’Sullivan PS, Battistone M, DeFer T, Elnicki M, Harrell H, Reddy S, Boscardin CK, Schwartz MD. Factors associated with medical students’ career choices regarding internal medicine. JAMA. 2008 Sep 10;300(10):1154-64. doi: 10.1001/jama.300.10.1154. PMID: 18780844.
    12. Held MR, Gibbs K, Lewin LO, Weinstein A. Do Pre-Clinical Experiences Adequately Prepare Students for Their Pediatrics Clerkship: A Needs Assessment to Inform Curricular Development. Medical Science Educator. 2017; 27 (515-521).
    13. Jackson MB, Keen M, Wenrich M, Schaad D, Robins L, Goldstein E. Impact of a Pre-Clinical Skills Curriculum on Student Performance in Third-Year Clerkships. J Gen Intern Med. 2009; 24(8):929-933.
    14. Kahn MJ, Markert RJ, Lopez FA, Specter S, Randall H, Krane NK. Is medical student choice of a primary care residency influenced by debt? MedGenMed. 2006 Oct 24;8(4):18. PMID: 17415301; PMCID: PMC1868367.
    15. National Resident Matching Program, Results and Data: 2022 Main Residency Match®. National Resident Matching Program, Washington, DC. 2022
    16. Phillips JP, Petterson SM, Bazemore AW, Phillips RL. A retrospective analysis of the relationship between medical student debt and primary care practice in the United States. Ann Fam Med. 2014 Nov-Dec;12(6):542-9. doi: 10.1370/afm.1697. PMID: 25384816; PMCID: PMC4226775.
    17. Querido S, van den Broek S, de Rond M, et al. Factors affecting senior medical students’ career choice. Int J Med Educ. 2018;9:332–339.
    18. Querido SJ, Vergouw D,Wigersma L, et al. Dynamics of career choice among students in undergraduate medical courses. A BEME systematic review: BEME Guide No. 33. Med Teach. 2016;38:18–29.
    19. Shah A, Gasner A, Bracken K, Scott I, Kelly MA, Palombo A. Early generalist placements are associated with family medicine career choice: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Med Educ. 2021;55(11):1242-1252. doi:10.1111/medu.14578
    20. Vinci RJ. The Pediatric Workforce: Recent Data Trends, Questions, and Challenges for the Future. Pediatrics. 2021;147(6):e2020013292. doi:10.1542/peds.2020-013292Need reference rural shortage
    21. Wright S, Wong A, Newill C. The impact of role models on medical students. J Gen Intern Med. 1997 Jan;12(1):53-6. doi: 10.1046/j.1525-1497.1997.12109.x. PMID: 9034946; PMCID: PMC1497058.
    22. Yoon JD, Ham SA, Reddy ST, Curlin FA. Role Models’ Influence on Specialty Choice for Residency Training: A National Longitudinal Study. J Grad Med Educ. 2018 Apr;10(2):149-154. doi: 10.4300/JGME-D-17-00063.1. PMID: 29686752; PMCID: PMC5901792
    23. Gans H, Boyer B, Bales M, Fussell J. National Pediatric Subspecialty Recruitment Sessions Increase Program Visibility and Impact Candidate Application Choices. J Grad Med Educ. 2023 June;14. doi: 10.4300/JGME-D-22-00749.1. PMC10286917; PMID: 37363682
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