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Working Document 12/20/2021

Original Research

    1. Vinci RJ. The Pediatric Workforce: Recent Data Trends, Questions and Challenges for the Future. Pediatrics. DOI: 10.1542/peds.2020-013292
    2. Vinci RJ, Degnon L, Devaskar, SU. Pediatrics 2025: The AMSPDC Workforce Initiative. The Journal of Pediatrics. Published online: February 6, 2021.  DOI:

Literature Review

    1. AAP National Committee on Pediatric Workforce: Tools and Resources for Advocacy in Pediatrics, 2013
    2. AAP Pediatric Subspecialty Shortages Fact Sheets
    3. AAP Research – Updated pediatrician and child trends Feb 2020 for AMSPDC
    4. Akl EA, Mustafa R, Bdair F, Schünemann HJ. The United States Physician Workforce and International Medical Graduates: Trends and Characteristics. Journal of General Internal Medicine. 2007;22:264–268.
    5. Allen DB, et al. Sustaining the Pediatric Endocrinology Workforce: Recommendations from the Pediatric Endocrine Society Workforce Task Force. The Journal of Pediatrics. 2020;doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2020.10.063.
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    10. Bravender T, et al. Association of Salary Differences Between Medical Specialties With Sex Distribution. JAMA. Published online February 8, 2021. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2020.5683.
    11. Bridgemohan C, Bauer NS, Nielsen BA, et al. A Workforce Survey on Developmental-Behavioral Pediatrics. Pediatrics. 2018;141(3):e20172164.
    12. Brotherton SE and Etzel SI. Graduate Medical Education, 2019-2020. JAMA vol. 324,12 (September 22/29, 2020).
    13. Burns, et al. White Paper & Table (2019) Fixing The Leaky Pipeline: Identifying Solutions For Improving Pediatrician-Scientist Training During Pediatric Residency 9-Burns et al_ White Paper    9a-Burns et al. Table.  
    14. Catenaccio, E et al. Differences in Lifetime Earning Potential Between Pediatric and Adult Physicians. Pediatrics.
    15. Catenaccio, E et al. Differences in Lifetime Earning Potential for Pediatric Subspecialists. Pediatrics. 2021; DOI:
    16. Correll CK et al. 2015 American College of Rheumatology Workforce Study and Demand Projections of Pediatric Rheumatology Workforce, 2015‐2030. Arthritis Care & Research. 27 October 2020
    17. Council of Pediatric Subspecialties Workforce Activities for AMSPDC, 2020
    18. Counts NZ et al. Proposing the Ideal Alternative Payment Model for Children. JAMA Pediatrics. Published online April 5, 2021. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2021.0247
    19. Duvivier RJ, Gusic ME, Boulet JR. International Medical Graduates in the Pediatric Workforce in the United States. Pediatrics. March 2020;
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    21. Filler et al. Does specialist physician supply affect pediatric asthma health outcomes? BMC Health Services Research. 2018;18:247.
    22. Fraher EP, Knapton A, Holmes GM. A Methodology for Using Workforce Data to Decide Which Specialties and States to Target for Graduate Medical Education ExpansionHealth Services Research. 2017;52 Suppl 1(Suppl 1):508–528. doi:10.1111/1475-6773.12649.
    23. Freed GL, Bias in Physician Workforce Research. Pediatrics. 2019;144(3):e20190469.
    24. Freed GL, Moran LM, Dunham KM, Hawkins-Walsh E and Martyn KK. Capacity of, And Demand For, Pediatric Nurse Practitioner Educational Programs: A Missing Piece of the Workforce Puzzle. Journal of Professional Nursing. Vol 0, No. 0 (February), 2015;pp 1–7.
    25. Freed GL, Moran LM, Van KD, et al. Current Workforce of General Pediatricians in the United States. Pediatrics. 2016;137(4):e20154242.
    26. Freed GL, Moran LM, Van KD, et al. Current Workforce of Pediatric Subspecialists in the United States. Pediatrics. 2017;139(5):e20163604.
    27. Freed, GL, Dunham KM, Moran LM, Spera L, McGuinness GA, Stevenson DK. Fellowship Program Directors Perspectives on Fellowship Training  Pediatrics. 2014;133;S64. DOI: 10.1542/peds.2013-3861D.
    28. Freed G, Du K, Jones M, McGuinness G, Althouse L. General Pediatrics Resident Perspectives on Training Decisions and Career Choice. Pediatrics. 2009;123 Suppl 1. S26-30. 10.1542/peds.2008-1578H.
    29. Freed GL, Moran LM, Althouse LA, et al. Jobs and Career Plans of New Pediatric Subspecialists. Pediatrics. 2016;137(3):e20153298.
    30. Freed GL, Dunham KM, Loveland-Cherry C, et al. Nurse Practitioners and Physician Assistants Employed by General and Subspecialty Pediatricians. Pediatrics. 2011;128:000.
    31. Freed GL, Dunham KM, Moran LM, Spera L, McGhinness GA and Stevenson DK. Pediatric Subspecialty Fellowship Clinical Training Project: Current Fellows. Pediatrics. 2014;133;S58. DOI: 10.1542/peds.2013-3861G.
    32. Freed GL, Dunham KM, Moran LM, Spera L, McGuiness GA, Stevenson DK. Kelly M. Dunham, Lauren M. Moran, Laura Spera, Gail A. McGuinness and David K. Stevenson. Pediatric Subspecialty Fellowship Clinical Training Project: Recent Graduates and Midcareer Survey Comparison. Pediatrics. 2014;133;S70. DOI: 10.1542/peds.2013-3861E.
    33. Freed GL, Dunham KM, Moran LM, McGuinness GA, Stevenson DK. Specialty Specific Comparisons Regarding Perspectives on Fellowship Training. Pediatrics. 2014;133;S76. DOI: 10.1542/peds.2013-3861F.
    34. Freed GL, et al. The Pediatric Subspecialty Workforce Is More Complex Than Meets the Eye. JAMA Pediatrics. 2021;175(10):1006-1008.
    35. Freed GL, Boyer DM, Van KD, Macy ML, McCormick J, Leslie LK. Variation in Part-Time Work among Pediatric Subspecialties. The Journal of Pediatrics. 2017.
    36. Gigli KH et al. Availability of Acute Care Pediatric Nurse Practitioner Education in the United States: A Challenge to Growing the Workforce. Journal of Pediatric Health Care. 2020;34:5.
    37. Gigli KH et al. PICU Provider Supply and Demand: A National Survey. Pediatric Critical Care Medicine. 2018; 19:18.
    38. Gigli KH et al. White Paper: Critical Shortage of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners PredictedJournal of Pediatric Health Care. 2019;33:3.
    39. Glenn DA, Ocegueda S, Nazareth M, Zhong Y, Weinstein AR, Primack WA, Cochat P, & Ferris ME The global pediatric nephrology workforce: a survey of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association. BMC Nephrology. 2016.
    40. Goodman DC. The Pediatric Subspecialty Workforce: Time to Test Our Assumptions. Pediatrics. 2006;118;2545.
    41. Henrickson M. Policy challenges for the pediatric rheumatology workforce: Part II. Health care system delivery and workforce supply. Pediatric Rheumatology. 2011;9:24.
    42. Henrickson M. Policy challenges for the pediatric rheumatology workforce: Part I. Education and economics. Pediatric Rheumatology. 2011;9:23.
    43. Heyman MB, Weiss P, Boyer D, Fussell J, Immundo L, Aye T, Jarjour IT, Spicer R, Bale J. Challenges of Funding Pediatric Fellowship Programs—Invited Commentary from the Council of Pediatric Subspecialties. The Journal of  Pediatrics. 2019.
    44. Hsu C, Parker MG, Ross MJ, Schmidt RJ, Harris RC on behalf of the ASN Nephrology Match Task Force. Improving the Nephrology Match: the Path Forward. J Am Soc Nephrol. 26: 2634–2639, 2015. doi: 10.1681/ASN.2015040420.
    45. Iyer, MS et al. What Procedures Are Important to General Pediatricians and Why? Academic Pediatrics. 2021 May 1;S1876-2859(21)00151-0. doi: 10.1016/j.acap.2021.03.012.
    46. Keels EL, Goldsmith JP, AAP Committee on Fetus and Newborn. Neonatal Provider Workforce. Pediatrics. 2019;144(6):e20193147.
    47. Lane, CA, Healy C, Ho M, Pearson S, & Brown MA. How to attract a nephrology trainee: quantitative questionnaire results. Nephrology. 2008;13 2, 116-23.
    48. Lee L, Upadhya KK, Matson PA, Adger H, Trent ME. The status of adolescent medicine: building a global adolescent workforce. Int J Adolesc Med Health. 2016;28(3):233–243. doi:10.1515/ijamh-2016-5003.
    49. Leyenaar, JK, & Frintner MP. Graduating Pediatric Residents Entering the Hospital Medicine Workforce, 2006-2015. Academic pediatrics. 2017;18 2, 200-207.
    50. Macy ML, Leslie LK, Boyer D, Van KD, Freed GL. Timing and Stability of Fellowship Choices during Pediatric Residency: A Longitudinal Survey. The Journal of Pediatrics. 2018 Jul;198:294-300.e1. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2018.03.034. Epub 2018 May 7. PMID: 29747937.
    51. Macy ML, Leslie LK, Turner A, and Freed GL. Growth and changes in the pediatric medical subspecialty workforce pipeline. Pediatric Research. 2020;
    52. Macy ML, Van KD, Leslie LL, Freed GL. Engagement in research among pediatric subspecialists at the time of enrollment in maintenance of certification, 2009−2016. Pediatric Research. 2019.
    53. Marshall GD. The status of US allergy/immunology physicians in the 21st century: A report from the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Workforce Committee. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. Volume 119, Issue 4, 802 – 807.
    54. Minaie, Arya & Shlykov, Maksim & Hosseinzadeh, Pooya. Pediatric Orthopedic Workforce. Orthopedic Clinics of North America. 2019;10.1016/j.ocl.2019.03.006.
    55. Pediatric Subspecialty Supply Model Information Sheet, 2020
    56. Perrin, JM et al. Medicaid and Child Health Equity. The New England Journal of Medicine. 2020; 383:2595-2598 DOI: 10.1056/NEJMp2030646.
    57. Petterson SM, Liaw WR, Tran C, Bazemore AW. Estimating the Residency Expansion Required to Avoid Projected Primary Care Physician Shortages by 2035Annals of Family Medicine. 2015;13:107-114. doi: 10.1370/afm.1760.
    58. Primack WA, Meyers KE, Kirkwood S, Ruch-Ross HS, Radabaugh CL, Greenbaum LA.  The US pediatric nephrology workforce: a report commissioned by the American Academy of Pediatrics. American Journal of Kidney Diseases. 2015;66 1, 33-9.
    59. Ray KN, et al. Supply and Utilization of Pediatric Subspecialists in the United States. Pediatrics. 2014;133;1061.
    60. Riebschleger, Meredith & McGuinness, Gail & Currin, Lee & Althouse, Linda & Freed, Gary. Noncompletion in Pediatric Rheumatology Fellowships. Journal of Graduate Medical Education. 2014;6. 158-61. 10.4300/JGME-D-13-00114.1.
    61. Rimsza ME, Ruch-Ross HS, Clemens CJ, Moskowitz WB, Mulvey HJ. Workforce Trends and Analysis of Selected Pediatric Subspecialties in the United States. Academic Pediatrics. 2018.
    62. Rockey PH, Rieselbach RE, Neuhausen K, Nasca TJ, Phillips RL, Sundwall DN, Philibert I, Yaghmour NA. States Can Transform Their Health Care Workforce. Journal of Graduate Medical Education. December 2014;Vol. 6, No. 4, pp. 805-808.
    63. Roizen, NJ et al. Developmental-Behavioral Pediatrics 13 Years After the First Board Certification: Evolving Subspecialty. Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics.
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    64. Ross RD. Progress in Pediatric Cardiology. Pediatric Cardiology. 2017; 44: 67-71
    65. Salata RA, Geraci MW, Rockey DC, Blanchard M, Brown NJ, Cardinal LJ, Garcia M, Madaio MP, Marsh JD, Todd RF. U.S. Physician–Scientist Workforce in the 21st Century: Recommendations to Attract and Sustain the Pipeline. Acad Med. 2018;93:565–573.
    66. Sectish T, Hay W, Mahan J, et al. Blueprint for Action: Visioning Summit on the Future of the Workforce in Pediatrics. Pediatrics. 136. 10.1542/peds.2014-3493.
    67. Silver JK, Bean AC, Slocum C, et al. Physician workforce disparities and patient care: a narrative review. Health Equity. 3:1, 360–377, DOI: 10.1089/heq.2019.0040.
    68. Streeter RA, Zangaro GA, Chattopadhyay A. Perspectives: Using Results from HRSA’s Health Workforce Simulation Model to Examine the Geography of Primary CareHealth Services Research. 2017;52 Suppl 1(Suppl 1):4.
    69. Turner A, Ricketts T, Leslie LK. Comparison of Number and Geographic Distribution of Pediatric Subspecialists and Patient Proximity to Specialized Care in the US Between 2003 and 2019. JAMA Pediatrics. 2020 May 18;174(9):805. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2020.1124. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 32421165; PMCID: PMC7235911.
    70. Weiss P, Mauer E, Gerber LM, Boyer D, Abramson EL. Funding sources and effects of limited funding in pediatric pulmonology fellowship programs. Pediatric Pulmonology. 2020;55:221–225.
    71. Weiss P, Myers AL, McGann KA, Mason KE, Kesselheim JC, Fleming G, Barron C, Klasner A, Heyman MB, Weiss DL, Mauer E, Gerber LM, Abramson EL. Funding Sources and Perceived Financial Insecurity in Pediatric Subspecialty Fellowship Programs. Academic Pediatrics. 2019;19:815−821.
    72. Weyland AC and Freed GL. Pediatric subspecialty workforce: Undersupply or Over-demand?, Pediatric Research doi:10.1038/s41390-020-0766-0.
    73. Weyand AC, Nichols DG, Freed GL. Current Efforts in Diversity for Pediatric Subspecialty Fellows: Playing a Zero-sum Game. Pediatrics. 2020;146(5):e2020001248.
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